Akoma Ntoso, a.k.a. LegalDocML, is a Committee Specification of OASIS, carried out by the OASIS LegalDocML Technical Committee. Akoma Ntoso is an XML legal formalism for the markup of literal content of any paper-based document.

Akoma Ntoso was partially inspired by CEN Metalex and it is currently used by a large set of institutions (see the full list here). The latest published version of Akoma Ntoso schema is Akoma Ntoso 3.0.

Akoma Ntoso defines a set of simple technology-neutral electronic XML markup of parliamentary, legislative, and judiciary documents, debate records, standards, and other requirements specification.

Akoma Ntoso stores metadata into a special XML section of the XML document, which is kept separate from the structural content of the document. The section is organized according to the open standard FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) entity-relationship model. Pointers from the section to the structural elements of the content allow to link the conceptual descriptions with the excerpts of texts denoting them, thus enabling semantic searches on the text and facilitating cataloging of the information.

Furthermore, the Akoma Ntoso reference system can be associated with the syntaxes of other naming conventions including ELI, ECLI, and URN:LEX, thus ensuring machine-readability of Akoma Ntoso-compliant documents across different platforms and data models.

The University of Luxembourg relies on Akoma Ntoso for the structural markup of legal texts, covering the hierarchical organization of these texts as well as the cross references (citations) that link the provisions in these texts (see Sannier et al. 2017).

Main contributor(s): Monica Palmirani